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Snapcraft Guide (Linux)

本指南提供了有关如何包装你的 Electron 应用程序的任何 Snapcraft 环境, 包括 Ubuntu 软件中心的信息。

背景和要求

与更广泛的 Linux 社区一起, 规范旨在解决 snapcraft 项目中的许多常见的软件安装问题。 Snaps 是容器化的软件包, 包括所需的依赖项、自动更新和对所有主要 Linux 发行版的工作, 而无需进行系统修改。

创建 .snap 文件有三种方法:

1) 使用 electron-forgeelectron-builder, 与 snap 支持的两个工具都不在该框中。 这是最简单的选择。 2) 使用 electron-installer-snap, 它采用 electron-packager 的输出。 3) 使用已经创建的 .deb 包。

在某些情况下,您需要安装 snapcraft 工具。 安装特定发行版的 snapcraft 的指南在这里能看到。

使用 electron-installer-snap

该模块的工作原理与electron-winstaller类似 因为它的范围仅限于构建捕捉包。 你可以这样安装:

npm install --save-dev electron-installer-snap

步骤 1: 打包你的 Electron 应用程序

打包应用程序使用 electron-packager (或类似工具)。 Make sure to remove node_modules that you don't need in your final application, since any module you don't actually need will increase your application's size.

结构输出应该看起来大致像这样:

.
└── dist
└── app-linux-x64
├── LICENSE
├── LICENSES.chromium.html
├── content_shell.pak
├── app
├── icudtl.dat
├── libgcrypt.so.11
├── libnode.so
├── locales
├── resources
├── v8_context_snapshot.bin
└── version

步骤 2: 运行 electron-installer-snap

From a terminal that has snapcraft in its PATH, run electron-installer-snap with the only required parameter --src, which is the location of your packaged Electron application created in the first step.

npx electron-installer-snap --src=out/myappname-linux-x64

If you have an existing build pipeline, you can use electron-installer-snap programmatically. For more information, see the Snapcraft API docs.

const snap = require('electron-installer-snap')

snap(options)
.then(snapPath => console.log(`Created snap at ${snapPath}!`))

Using snapcraft with electron-packager

第 1 步:创建示例 Snapcraft 项目

创建你的项目目录并将以下内容添加到 snap/snapcraft.yaml

name: electron-packager-hello-world
version: '0.1'
summary: Hello World Electron app
description: |
Simple Hello World Electron app as an example
base: core18
confinement: strict
grade: stable

apps:
electron-packager-hello-world:
command: electron-quick-start/electron-quick-start --no-sandbox
extensions: [gnome-3-34]
plugs:
- browser-support
- network
- network-bind
environment:
# Correct the TMPDIR path for Chromium Framework/Electron to ensure
# libappindicator has readable resources.
TMPDIR: $XDG_RUNTIME_DIR

parts:
electron-quick-start:
plugin: nil
source: https://github.com/electron/electron-quick-start.git
override-build: |
npm install electron electron-packager
npx electron-packager . --overwrite --platform=linux --output=release-build --prune=true
cp -rv ./electron-quick-start-linux-* $SNAPCRAFT_PART_INSTALL/electron-quick-start
build-snaps:
- node/14/stable
build-packages:
- unzip
stage-packages:
- libnss3
- libnspr4

如果要将此示例应用于现有项目:

  • 替代 source: https://github.com/electron/electron-quick-start.git</0 > 为 <code>source: ...
  • 替代所有的 electron-quick-start 为你的项目名称。

第 2 步:构建 snap

$ snapcraft

<output snipped>
Snapped electron-packager-hello-world_0.1_amd64.snap

第 3 步:安装 snap

sudo snap install electron-packager-hello-world_0.1_amd64.snap --dangerous

第 4 步:运行 snap

electron-packager-hello-world

使用一个现有的 Debian 包

Snapcraft is capable of taking an existing .deb file and turning it into a .snap file. The creation of a snap is configured using a snapcraft.yaml file that describes the sources, dependencies, description, and other core building blocks.

步骤 1: 创建一个 Debian 包

If you do not already have a .deb package, using electron-installer-snap might be an easier path to create snap packages. However, multiple solutions for creating Debian packages exist, including electron-forge, electron-builder or electron-installer-debian.

步骤 2: 创建一个 snapcraft.yaml

For more information on the available configuration options, see the documentation on the snapcraft syntax. Let's look at an example:

name: myApp
version: '2.0.0'
summary: A little description for the app.
description: |
You know what? This app is amazing! It does all the things
for you. Some say it keeps you young, maybe even happy.

grade: stable
confinement: classic

parts:
slack:
plugin: dump
source: my-deb.deb
source-type: deb
after:
- desktop-gtk3
stage-packages:
- libasound2
- libnotify4
- libnspr4
- libnss3
- libpcre3
- libpulse0
- libxss1
- libxtst6
electron-launch:
plugin: dump
source: files/
prepare: |
chmod +x bin/electron-launch

apps:
myApp:
command: bin/electron-launch $SNAP/usr/lib/myApp/myApp
desktop: usr/share/applications/myApp.desktop
# Correct the TMPDIR path for Chromium Framework/Electron to ensure
# libappindicator has readable resources.
environment:
TMPDIR: $XDG_RUNTIME_DIR

As you can see, the snapcraft.yaml instructs the system to launch a file called electron-launch. In this example, it passes information on to the app's binary:

#!/bin/sh

exec "$@" --executed-from="$(pwd)" --pid=$$ > /dev/null 2>&1 &

Alternatively, if you're building your snap with strict confinement, you can use the desktop-launch command:

apps:
myApp:
# Correct the TMPDIR path for Chromium Framework/Electron to ensure
# libappindicator has readable resources.
command: env TMPDIR=$XDG_RUNTIME_DIR PATH=/usr/local/bin:${PATH} ${SNAP}/bin/desktop-launch $SNAP/myApp/desktop
desktop: usr/share/applications/desktop.desktop