Ir para o conteúdo principal

protocol

Registra um protocolo personalizado e intercepta as solicitações de protocolo existentes.

Processo: Main

Um exemplo de implementação de um protocolo que tem o mesmo efeito que o file:// protocol:

const { app, protocol, net } = require('electron')

app.whenReady().then(() => {
protocol.handle('atom', (request) =>
net.fetch('file://' + request.url.slice('atom://'.length)))
})

Nota: Todos os métodos, a menos que seja especificados, só podem ser usados ​​após o evento app quando é emitido.

Using protocol with a custom partition or session

A protocol is registered to a specific Electron session object. If you don't specify a session, then your protocol will be applied to the default session that Electron uses. However, if you define a partition or session on your browserWindow's webPreferences, then that window will use a different session and your custom protocol will not work if you just use electron.protocol.XXX.

To have your custom protocol work in combination with a custom session, you need to register it to that session explicitly.

const { app, BrowserWindow, net, protocol, session } = require('electron')
const path = require('node:path')
const url = require('url')

app.whenReady().then(() => {
const partition = 'persist:example'
const ses = session.fromPartition(partition)

ses.protocol.handle('atom', (request) => {
const filePath = request.url.slice('atom://'.length)
return net.fetch(url.pathToFileURL(path.join(__dirname, filePath)).toString())
})

const mainWindow = new BrowserWindow({ webPreferences: { partition } })
})

Métodos

O módulo de protocolo possui os seguintes métodos:

protocol.registerSchemesAsPrivileged(customSchemes)

Note: This method can only be used before the ready event of the app module gets emitted and can be called only once.

Registers the scheme as standard, secure, bypasses content security policy for resources, allows registering ServiceWorker, supports fetch API, streaming video/audio, and V8 code cache. Specify a privilege with the value of true to enable the capability.

An example of registering a privileged scheme, that bypasses Content Security Policy:

const { protocol } = require('electron')
protocol.registerSchemesAsPrivileged([
{ scheme: 'foo', privileges: { bypassCSP: true } }
])

Um esquema padrão adere ao que a RFC 3986 chama generic URI syntax. Por exemplo http e https são esquema padrão, enquanto file não é.

Registering a scheme as standard allows relative and absolute resources to be resolved correctly when served. Caso contrário, o esquema se comportará como o protocolo file, mas sem a capacidade de resolver URLs relativos.

Por exemplo, quando você carrega a página seguinte com o protocolo personalizado sem registrando-o como esquema padrão, a imagem não será carregada porque esquemas não padrão não podem reconhecer URLs relativas:

<body>
<img src='test.png'>
</body>

Registrar um esquema como padrão permitirá o acesso aos arquivos através doFileSystem API. Caso contrário, o renderizador lançará um erro de segurança para o esquema.

By default web storage apis (localStorage, sessionStorage, webSQL, indexedDB, cookies) are disabled for non standard schemes. So in general if you want to register a custom protocol to replace the http protocol, you have to register it as a standard scheme.

Protocols that use streams (http and stream protocols) should set stream: true. The <video> and <audio> HTML elements expect protocols to buffer their responses by default. The stream flag configures those elements to correctly expect streaming responses.

protocol.handle(scheme, handler)

  • scheme string - scheme to handle, for example https or my-app. This is the bit before the : in a URL.
  • handler Function<GlobalResponse | Promise<GlobalResponse>>

Register a protocol handler for scheme. Requests made to URLs with this scheme will delegate to this handler to determine what response should be sent.

Either a Response or a Promise<Response> can be returned.

Exemplo:

const { app, net, protocol } = require('electron')
const path = require('node:path')
const { pathToFileURL } = require('url')

protocol.registerSchemesAsPrivileged([
{
scheme: 'app',
privileges: {
standard: true,
secure: true,
supportFetchAPI: true
}
}
])

app.whenReady().then(() => {
protocol.handle('app', (req) => {
const { host, pathname } = new URL(req.url)
if (host === 'bundle') {
if (pathname === '/') {
return new Response('<h1>hello, world</h1>', {
headers: { 'content-type': 'text/html' }
})
}
// NB, this checks for paths that escape the bundle, e.g.
// app://bundle/../../secret_file.txt
const pathToServe = path.resolve(__dirname, pathname)
const relativePath = path.relative(__dirname, pathToServe)
const isSafe = relativePath && !relativePath.startsWith('..') && !path.isAbsolute(relativePath)
if (!isSafe) {
return new Response('bad', {
status: 400,
headers: { 'content-type': 'text/html' }
})
}

return net.fetch(pathToFileURL(pathToServe).toString())
} else if (host === 'api') {
return net.fetch('https://api.my-server.com/' + pathname, {
method: req.method,
headers: req.headers,
body: req.body
})
}
})
})

See the MDN docs for Request and Response for more details.

protocol.unhandle(scheme)

  • scheme string - scheme for which to remove the handler.

Removes a protocol handler registered with protocol.handle.

protocol.isProtocolHandled(scheme)

  • scheme string

Returns boolean - Whether scheme is already handled.

protocol.registerFileProtocol(scheme, handler) Descontinuado

Returns boolean - Whether the protocol was successfully registered

Registers a protocol of scheme that will send a file as the response. The handler will be called with request and callback where request is an incoming request for the scheme.

To handle the request, the callback should be called with either the file's path or an object that has a path property, e.g. callback(filePath) or callback({ path: filePath }). The filePath must be an absolute path.

By default the scheme is treated like http:, which is parsed differently from protocols that follow the "generic URI syntax" like file:.

protocol.registerBufferProtocol(scheme, handler) Descontinuado

Returns boolean - Whether the protocol was successfully registered

Registers a protocol of scheme that will send a Buffer as a response.

The usage is the same with registerFileProtocol, except that the callback should be called with either a Buffer object or an object that has the data property.

Exemplo:

protocol.registerBufferProtocol('atom', (request, callback) => {
callback({ mimeType: 'text/html', data: Buffer.from('<h5>Response</h5>') })
})

protocol.registerStringProtocol(scheme, handler) Descontinuado

Returns boolean - Whether the protocol was successfully registered

Registers a protocol of scheme that will send a string as a response.

The usage is the same with registerFileProtocol, except that the callback should be called with either a string or an object that has the data property.

protocol.registerHttpProtocol(scheme, handler) Descontinuado

Returns boolean - Whether the protocol was successfully registered

Registers a protocol of scheme that will send an HTTP request as a response.

The usage is the same with registerFileProtocol, except that the callback should be called with an object that has the url property.

protocol.registerStreamProtocol(scheme, handler) Descontinuado

Returns boolean - Whether the protocol was successfully registered

Registers a protocol of scheme that will send a stream as a response.

The usage is the same with registerFileProtocol, except that the callback should be called with either a ReadableStream object or an object that has the data property.

Exemplo:

const { protocol } = require('electron')
const { PassThrough } = require('stream')

function createStream (text) {
const rv = new PassThrough() // PassThrough is also a Readable stream
rv.push(text)
rv.push(null)
return rv
}

protocol.registerStreamProtocol('atom', (request, callback) => {
callback({
statusCode: 200,
headers: {
'content-type': 'text/html'
},
data: createStream('<h5>Response</h5>')
})
})

It is possible to pass any object that implements the readable stream API (emits data/end/error events). For example, here's how a file could be returned:

protocol.registerStreamProtocol('atom', (request, callback) => {
callback(fs.createReadStream('index.html'))
})

protocol.unregisterProtocol(scheme) Descontinuado

  • scheme string

Returns boolean - Whether the protocol was successfully unregistered

Unregisters the custom protocol of scheme.

protocol.isProtocolRegistered(scheme) Descontinuado

  • scheme string

Returns boolean - Whether scheme is already registered.

protocol.interceptFileProtocol(scheme, handler) Descontinuado

Returns boolean - Whether the protocol was successfully intercepted

Intercepts scheme protocol and uses handler as the protocol's new handler which sends a file as a response.

protocol.interceptStringProtocol(scheme, handler) Descontinuado

Returns boolean - Whether the protocol was successfully intercepted

Intercepts scheme protocol and uses handler as the protocol's new handler which sends a string as a response.

protocol.interceptBufferProtocol(scheme, handler) Descontinuado

Returns boolean - Whether the protocol was successfully intercepted

Intercepts scheme protocol and uses handler as the protocol's new handler which sends a Buffer as a response.

protocol.interceptHttpProtocol(scheme, handler) Descontinuado

Returns boolean - Whether the protocol was successfully intercepted

Intercepts scheme protocol and uses handler as the protocol's new handler which sends a new HTTP request as a response.

protocol.interceptStreamProtocol(scheme, handler) Descontinuado

Returns boolean - Whether the protocol was successfully intercepted

Same as protocol.registerStreamProtocol, except that it replaces an existing protocol handler.

protocol.uninterceptProtocol(scheme) Descontinuado

  • scheme string

Returns boolean - Whether the protocol was successfully unintercepted

Remove the interceptor installed for scheme and restore its original handler.

protocol.isProtocolIntercepted(scheme) Descontinuado

  • scheme string

Returns boolean - Whether scheme is already intercepted.